The CFD problem should be strongly simplified at the beginning, in order to ensure a solution is reached. Later, the final precise basis calculation can be set up. Only the end calculations should be executed and documented with the highest cell number.

The starting point of any flow analysis is to describe the geometry of the
mechanical system; therefore an electronic copy of the 3D geometry is
mandatory. I recommend generating it with a professional CAD tool. If the
model has been generated by others, it is necessary to correct and to simplify
it. Details like bolts must be suppressed as they would unnecessary
prolongate the calculation time.

Each CAD program has its own file format; there is a Solidworks, a Sold Edge,
a CATIA, a Siemens NX format … Each can, however, export in the universally
readable STEP format. Nowadays CAD is generated as volumes. Some CFD Tools
like CFX or OpenFoam still require surfaces as a geometry input; the
conversion is made in additional software like Ansys Design Modeler or Ansa.
Some CFD tools are integrated in a CAD tool, so the tedious import and export
of CAD data is skipped. Both Solidworks Flow Simulation and Flotherm XT are
fully embedded in Solidworks, but not natively integrated in other 3D CAD
systems. FloEFD is a better choice if a CAD system other than SOLIDWORKS is
used, as FloEFD can also be integrated with PTC Creo, CATIA, Solid Edge and
Siemens NX.

After the calculation mesh has been generated, the calculation can be set
up in the CFD tool:

The boundary conditions must be given, mostly as
inlet mass flow or inlet pressure; the CFD Software FloEFD offers as an
alternative the possibility to input fan characteristics. If the heat transfer
is to be calculated as well, then heat sources or fixed temperatures must be
input. For the simulation of a rotating region, only the definition of the
rotating region and of the rotational speed are necessary; the program will
add source terms in the equations of movements in order to take into account
the effects of the Coriolis and centrifugal forces. Now the materials,
numerical parameters, and convergence criteria can be defined and the
calculation started.

The calculation is converged when both the mass and the energy conservation are reached and when the pressure and speed values hardly change as the calculation progresses. The standard defined numerical parameters of the calculation tool can be changed in order to reach a convergent solution more easily; however, giving low order parameters will result in a widespread unphysical spread of the results. Some very demanding applications will need advanced CFD knowledge to be able to fine-tune the meshing and solver settings to converge on a solution.

**
Cooling of a Wind Power Station IGBT**

You
will learn: - •Why frequency converters need cooling; -•Why the thermal
resistance of the Thermal Interface Materials matters; - •How to set-up a
transient case for low frequencies ...